Urolithiasis in cats is a dangerous disease of the genitourinary system, which is manifested by the formation of concretions and sand in the urinary system. Small formations can easily leave the body, and large ones lead to blockage of the ducts and pose a threat to the pet’s life. If there is an impurity of blood in the urine and the animal is worried, you should immediately contact a veterinary clinic for diagnosis.
Signs of urolithiasis in Maine Coon
At first, the concretions accumulate and are so small that they do not create discomfort for the animal and do not attract the attention of the owners. It is possible to determine them at an early stage only by conducting an examination of the abdominal cavity for the presence of other diseases. Over time, the stones begin to grow, scratch the walls of the urinary system and clog the urethra. In order to help the animal in time, you need to be able to recognize the main symptoms of urolithiasis in cats:
- restless behavior of the pet, emptying of the bladder is accompanied by meowing;
- frequent urge to urinate;
- the presence of blood inclusions, clots and sand;
- the urination stream is weak, the animal strains to urinate, in severe cases there is a complete absence of urination;
- body temperature rises to 40 degrees;
- soreness in the abdominal area;
- urine acquires a sharp concentrated odor.
How does urolithiasis develop in Naine Coon cats?
The main cause of the formation of concretions is a metabolic disorder, which is facilitated by various factors. As a result, stones in the form of oxalates and struvites are formed in the kidneys, ureter and bladder.
When the formations have small sizes and a smooth surface, they are in the bladder for a long time without any signs. In this case, the diagnosis occurs by chance, during examination due to other diseases. Such manifestations are characteristic of Struvites. But if oxalate calculus has formed in the genitourinary system, it will irritate, scratch the mucous membrane of the urinary system. Growing up, they are able to clog the urethra. Oxalate plays the role of a plug and can lead to a complete cessation of urination. Uroletiasis in males more often causes the absence of urination than in females, especially in sterilized ones.
When urolithiasis passes into an acute phase, the infectious and inflammatory process of the kidneys begins, poisoning of the body and dehydration. Emergency veterinary care should be provided within 48 hours, with a longer absence of veterinary care, a fatal outcome is highly likely.
Complications of urolithiasis in cats
If you delay helping a pet, then easily treatable urolithiasis will become overgrown with complications, in which it will be much more difficult to save a pet. Possible complications:
- Hematuria. A large content of red blood cells: from 20 to 30 in the urine sediment, or a total amount when the stone blocked the urethra.
- Anuria with complete overlap of the ureter / urethra.
- Uremia. When urine has nowhere to go, the kidneys suspend its production, and toxic compounds produced during metabolism begin to accumulate in the body.
- Rupture of the bladder. Leads to peritonitis and intoxication.
- Joining the infection. Quite often, due to the fact that the walls of the urethra are torn and urine stagnates, the disease is aggravated by the addition of staphylococci and E. coli.
What to do when the first symptoms of urolithiasis appear in Maine Coon?
Knowing how urolithiasis manifests itself in cats, at the slightest doubtful symptoms, it is worth immediately taking the pet to a veterinary clinic. The veterinarian will listen carefully to complaints, prescribe the necessary diagnostics and perform palpation of the abdominal cavity. It is mandatory to send for blood and urine tests for laboratory testing, as well as for X-ray and ultrasound examination. After that, a decision is made on further treatment.
In no case should you start treatment at home. This can provoke irreversible consequences.
Is urolithiasis treated in cats?
Treatment of urolithiasis, depending on the complexity of the course, is carried out in two ways: conservative or operative.
The conservative method is used if the disease has not acquired complications and medical care has been provided on time. Then the animal begins to be treated according to the following algorithm:
- Relieving pain and spasms with antispasmodic drugs.
- Restoration of urine outflow by washing out stones from the urethra, installing a catheter, drug dissolution of stones or laser crushing.
- Elimination of intoxication with the help of droppers with special solutions that increase urine excretion.
- Prescribing antibiotics.
- Removal of inflammation and complex treatment of urolithiasis in cats.
When conservative methods do not bring positive dynamics, the pet is prescribed surgery. The operation does not solve the causes of the disease, but only relieves the acute condition. Recovery takes a long time and usually the process is not limited to one operation. With the prompt resolution of urolithiasis, the above-described methods of treatment are used. But the restoration of the outflow of urine is carried out by creating artificial excretory channels and a cavity operation to extract concretions.
Subsequently, the animals are assigned a special diet based on medicinal feeds or a balanced home-cooked diet.
Why do cats form stones?
The causes of urolithiasis of cats are the influence of external and internal factors, and in some cases in their totality.
- low-quality food;
- excess minerals;
- insufficient amount of water;
- low quality water;
- vitamin A deficiency, which has a positive effect on the genitourinary system.
- imbalance in hormones;
- physiological features of the structure of the ureter/ urethra;
- violation of the gastrointestinal tract;
- inactive lifestyle;
- chronic diseases of the genitourinary system.
What kind of food to choose for Maine Coon urolithiasis?
When the acute phase has passed, the owner has a question: what to feed after being cured? There is a special therapeutic food for cats with urolithiasis, which helps to increase the acidity of urine. This affects the dissolution of possible concretions in the genitourinary system. In addition, such nutrition causes a diuretic effect. Dietary industrial dry food or canned food in small quantities contain phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.
If it is not possible to use special food for urolithiasis, then the owners should independently make up the diet. In this case, the following is important:
- exclude products containing calcium;
- the diet should consist of meat products with vegetables without calcium and alkali;
- do not mix homemade food with fictional dry food;
- diversify your diet;
- no offal, sausages and cheap dry food.
Is urolithiasis contagious to other feline pets?
Scientists have conducted many studies, as a result of which it has been proved that urolithiasis is not transmitted to humans and other individuals of the feline species. This is an internal non-communicable disease. However, urolithiasis in cats can be inherited, and it is already difficult to predict which kitten from the litter will inherit this feature.